elegant items to wear of the party

Pediatrics Mnemonics

Gastroschisis: usual location GasTRoscHIsis
usually occurs on the
RIGHT side of the umbilicus.
(Unscramble the letters).

Milk protein: women vs. cows Woman: Whey
Cow: Casein (mostly)

Short stature: differential ABCDEFG:
Alone (neglected infant)
Bone dysplasias (rickets, scoliosis, mucopolysaccharidoses)
Chromosomal (Turner's, Down's)
Delayed growth
Endocrine (low growth hormone, Cushing's, hypothyroid)
GI malabsorption (celiac, Crohn's)

Breast feeding: contraindicated drugs BREAST:
Bromocriptine/ Benzodiazepines
Radioactive isotopes/ Rizatriptan
Ergotamine/ Ethosuximide
Amiodarone/ Amphetamines
Stimulant laxatives/ Sex hormones
Tetracycline/ Tretinoin

Paediatric history taking · Begin with standard things:
patient name, presenting complaint, history of presenting complaint and past elegant items to wear of the party
medical history.
· Then ask BIFIDA:
Birth details and problems
Infection, exposure to
Development, normality of
· End by customary review of the rest of the standard things: medications,
family history and social history.

APGAR score components APGAR:
Appearance: cyanosis--peripheral, central, none
Pulse: pulse rate
Grimace: response to stimulation
Activity: movement of the baby (muscle tone)
Respiration: respiratory rate

Beckwith-Widemann syndrome: features HOMO:
Macroglossia/ Macrosomia

Neonatal resuscitation: successive steps "Do What
Pediatricians Say To, Or Be Inviting
Costly Malpractice":
Tactile stimulation
Intubate endotracheally
Chest compressions

APGAR score components · Five B's:
Breathing (respiratory effort)
Beating (heart rate)
Buff (tone)
Bothered (response to stimulation)
Blue (cyanosis)

Cystic fibrosis: exacerbation of pulmonary infection CF
Cough (increase in intensity and frequent spells)
Fever (usually low grade, unless severe bronchopneumonia is present)
Pulmonary function deterioration
Appetite decrease
Nutrition, weight loss
CBC (leukocytosis with left shift)
Radiograph (increase overaeration, peribronchial thickening, mucus
Exam (rales or wheezing in previously clear areas, tachypnea,
Activity (decreased, impaired exercise intolerance, increased
Sputum (becomes darker, thicker, and more abundant, forming plugs)

Pyloric stenosis (congential): presentation Pyloric
stenosis is 3 P's:
Palpable mass
Paristalsis visible
Projectile vomiting (2-4 weeks after birth)

Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · 5 T's:
Tetralogy of Fallot
Transposition of the great arteries
Truncus arteriosus
Tricuspid atresia, pulmonary aTresia
Total anomalous pulmonary venous drainage

Breast feeding: benefits ABCDEFGH:
· Infant:
Allergic condition reduced
Best food for infant
Close relationship with mother
Development of IQ, jaws, mouth
· Mother:
Fitness: quick return to pre-pregnancy body shape
Guards against cancer: breast, ovary, uterus
Hemorrhage (postpartum) reduced

Perez reflex Eliciting the PErEz reflex will
make the baby PEE.

WAGR syndrome: components WAGR:
Wilm's tumor
Gential abnormalities
Mental retardation

Haematuria: differential in children ABCDEFGHIJK:
Anatomy (cysts, etc)
Bladder (cystitis)
Cancer (Wilm's tumour)
Drug related (cyclophosphamide)
Exercise induced
Factitious (Munchausen by proxy)
Haematology (bleeding disorder, sickle cell)
Infection (UTI)
In Jury (trauma)
Kidney stones (hypercalciuria)

Vitamin toxicities: neonatal Excess vitamin A: Anomalies
Excess vitamin E: Enterocolitis (necrotizing enterocolitis)
Excess vitamin K: Kernicterus (hemolysis)

Rubella: congenital signs "Rubber Ducky, I'm so blue!"
(like the "Rubber Ducky" song):
Rubber: Rubella
Ducky: Patent Ductus Arteriosus, VSD and pulmonary artery stenosis.
I'm: Eyes (cataracts, retinopathy, micropthalmia, glaucoma).
Blue: "Blueberry Muffin" rash (extramedullary hematopoesis in skin
· Also, deafness, growth retardation, and some more.

Pediatric milestones in development 1 year:
-single words
2 years:
-2 word sentences
-understands 2 step commands
3 years:
-3 word combos
-repeats 3 digits
-rides tricycle
4 years:
-draws square
-counts 4objects

Williams syndrome: features WILLIAMS:
Weight (low at birth, slow to gain)
Iris (stellate iris)
Long philtrum
Large mouth
Increased Ca++
Aortic stenosis (and other stenoses)
Mental retardation
Swelling around eyes (periorbital puffiness)

Russell Silver syndrome: features ABCDEF:
Asymmetric limb (hemihypertrophy)
Bossing (frontal)
Clinodactyly/ Cafe au lait spots
Dwarf (short stature)
Excretion (GU malformation)
Face (triangular face, micrognathia)

Dentition: eruption times of permanent dentition "Mama
Is In Pain, Papa Can Make Medicine":
1st Molar: 6 years
1st Incisor: 7 years
2nd Incisor: 8 years
1st Premolar: 9 years
2nd Premolar: 10 years
Canine: 11 years
2nd Molar: 12 years
3rd Molar: 18-25 years

Cyanotic heart diseases: 5 types · Use your five fingers:
1 finger up: Truncus Arteriosus (1 vessel)
2 fingers up: Dextroposition of the Great Arteries (2 vessels
3 fingers up: Tricuspid Atresia (3=Tri)
4 fingers up: Tetralogy of Fallot (4=Tetra)
5 fingers up: Total Anomalous Pulmonary Venous Return (5=5 words)

Cyanotic congenital heart diseases 5 T's:
Truncus arteriosus
Transposition of the great arteries
Tricuspid atresia
Tetrology of Fallot
Total anomalous pulmonary venous return

Head circumference with age · Remember 3, 9, and multiples
of 5:
Newborn 35 cm
3 mos 40 cm
9 mos 45 cm
3 yrs 50 cm
9 yrs 55cm

Weights of children with age Newborn 3 kg
6 mos 6 kg (2x birth wt at 6 mos)
1 yr 10 kg (3x birth wt at 1 yr)
3 yrs 15 kg (odd yrs, add 5 kg until 11 yrs)
5 yrs 20 kg
7 yrs 25 kg
9 yrs 30 kg
11 yrs 35 kg (add 10 kg thereafter)
13 yrs 45 kg
15 yrs 55 kg
17 yrs 65kg

Hemolytic-Uremic Syndrome (HUS): components "Remember to
decrease the RATE of IV fluids in these patients":
Renal failure
Anemia (microangiopathic, hemolytic)
Encephalopathy (TTP)

Cough (chronic): differential When cough in nursery, rock
the "CRADLE":
Cystic fibrosis
Rings, slings, and airway things (tracheal rings)/ Respiratory
Aspiration (swallowing dysfunction, TE fistula, gastroesphageal reflux)
Dyskinetic cilia
Lung, airway, and vascular malformations (tracheomalacia, vocal cord
Edema (heart failure)

Cystic fibrosis: presenting signs CF PANCREAS:
Chronic cough and wheezing
Failure to thrive
Pancreatic insufficiency (symptoms of malabsorption like steatorrhea)
Alkalosis and hypotonic dehydration
Neonatal intestinal obstruction (meconium ileus)/ Nasal polyps
Clubbing of fingers/ Chest radiograph with characteristic changes
Rectal prolapse
Electrolyte elevation in sweat, salty skin
Absence or congenital atresia of vas deferens
Sputum with Staph or Pseudomonas (mucoid)

Sturge-Weber syndrome: hallmark features Sturge-Weber:
1. Seizures
2. PortWine stain

Guthrie card: diseases identified with it "Guthrie
Cards Can Help Predict Bad Metabolism":
Cystic fibrosis
Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
Biotidinase deficiency
Maple syrup urine disease

Croup: symptoms 3 S's:
Subglottic swelling
Seal-bark cough

Ataxia-Telangiectasia (AT): common sign AT:

Cerebral palsy (CP): most likely cause CP: Cerebral
Child Premature
· The premature brain is more prone to all the possible insults.

Vacterl syndrome: components VACTERL:
Vertebral anomalies
Anorectal malformation
Cardiac anomaly
Tracheo-esophageal fistula
Exomphalos (aka omphalocele)
Renal anomalies
Limb anomalies

Guthrie card: diseases identified with it GUTHRIE:
Urine [maple syrup urine disease]
THyRoid [hypothyroidism]
Inborn Errors of metabolism [eg: PKU]

Duodenal atresia vs. Pyloric stenosis: site of obstruction
Duodenal Atresia: Distal to Ampulla of vater.
Pyloric stenosis: Proximal to it.

Bilirubin: phototherapy BiLirUbin
absorbs light maximally in the
BLUe range.

Septic Arthritis: most common cause Staphylococcus
Aureus is the most common cause of
Septic Arthritis in the pediatric population.